Figure 2: Experimental protocol of the incremental cycling exercise test. Note: All participants were first required to drink the experimental water. They started to perform the exercise test after a seated rest for 30 minutes. They underwent an incremental cycling exercise using a ramp load method after a 3-minute warm up at 0 W. Recovery means that the participants rested in a sitting position on the bicycle ergometer after the cycling exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak load were used as parameters of aerobic capacity. White arrows indicate the time points of blood sampling to evaluate lactate levels, oxidative stress, and antioxidant activity. Ex: Exercise.