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Subacute normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in drowning, reversal of brain volume loss: a case report
Paul G Harch, Edward F Fogarty
April-June 2017, 7(2):144-149
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.208521  PMID:28744368
A 2-year-old girl experienced cardiac arrest after cold water drowning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed deep gray matter injury on day 4 and cerebral atrophy with gray and white matter loss on day 32. Patient had no speech, gait, or responsiveness to commands on day 48 at hospital discharge. She received normobaric 100% oxygen treatment (2 L/minute for 45 minutes by nasal cannula, twice/day) since day 56 and then hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) at 1.3 atmosphere absolute (131.7 kPa) air/45 minutes, 5 days/week for 40 sessions since day 79; visually apparent and/or physical examination-documented neurological improvement occurred upon initiating each therapy. After HBOT, the patient had normal speech and cognition, assisted gait, residual fine motor and temperament deficits. MRI at 5 months after injury and 27 days after HBOT showed near-normalization of ventricles and reversal of atrophy. Subacute normobaric oxygen and HBOT were able to restore drowning-induced cortical gray matter and white matter loss, as documented by sequential MRI, and simultaneous neurological function, as documented by video and physical examinations.
  60,418 2,177 1
The role of nitric oxide in stroke
Zhou-qing Chen, Ru-tao Mou, Dong-xia Feng, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
July-September 2017, 7(3):194-203
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215750  PMID:29152213
Stroke is considered to be an acute cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. The high incidence and poor prognosis of stroke suggest that it is a highly disabling and highly lethal disease which can pose a serious threat to human health. Nitric oxide (NO), a common gas in nature, which is often thought as a toxic gas, because of its intimate relationship with the pathological processes of many diseases, especially in the regulation of blood flow and cell inflammation. However, recent years have witnessed an increased interest that NO plays a significant and positive role in stroke as an essential gas signal molecule. In view of the fact that the neuroprotective effect of NO is closely related to its concentration, cell type and time, only in the appropriate circumstances can NO play a protective effect. The purpose of this review is to summarize the roles of NO in ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
  18,340 455 40
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) respiratory failure
Paul G Harch
April-June 2020, 10(2):61-62
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.282177  PMID:32541128
  14,062 796 10
Ozone and oxidation therapies as a solution to the emerging crisis in infectious disease management: a review of current knowledge and experience
Robert Jay Rowen
October-December 2019, 9(4):232-237
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.273962  PMID:31898609
Medicine faces crisis with emerging “super bugs,” lethal viruses (Ebola), and stealth pathogens such as tick-borne infections. Thousands are dying worldwide of once easily treatable diseases. Ozone therapy, extensively studied, may be a valuable adjunctive or stand-alone therapy. Ebola again ravages Africa with over 2000 already dead, carrying a 65% mortality rate. The world desperately needs safe, inexpensive and effective anti-infective therapy to which microbes will not develop resistance. Oxidation therapies have shown an extremely high safety profile, lacking credible reports of significant injury beyond vein irritation. Ozone therapy, the most studied and least expensive to perform, is in itself a germicide, not an antibiotic, and improves several physiological parameters essential for infection defense. Recent reports indicate very favorable responses to both bacterial and viral disease, inclusive of Ebola. Despite lack of commercial profitability (not patentable), medicine would do well to revisit its pre-antibiotic era oxidation therapy roots, especially ozone in the current crisis.
  9,961 3,824 3
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Alzheimer’s dementia with positron emission tomography imaging: A case report
Paul G Harch, Edward F Fogarty
October-December 2018, 8(4):181-184
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.248271  PMID:30713673
A 58-year-old female was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) which was rapidly progressive in the 8 months prior to initiation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging demonstrated global and typical metabolic deficits in AD (posterior temporal-parietal watershed and cingulate areas). An 8-week course of HBOT reversed the patient’s symptomatic decline. Repeat PET imaging demonstrated a corresponding 6.5–38% regional and global increase in brain metabolism, including increased metabolism in the typical AD diagnostic areas of the brain. Continued HBOT in conjunction with standard pharmacotherapy maintained the patient’s symptomatic level of function over an ensuing 22 months. This is the first reported case of simultaneous HBOT-induced symptomatic and 18FDG PET documented improvement of brain metabolism in AD and suggests an effect on global pathology in AD.
  10,296 838 4
Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on endotoxin-induced uveitis
Wei-ming Yan, Lei Zhang, Tao Chen, Guan-hua Zhao, Pan Long, Jing An, Zuo-ming Zhang
January-March 2017, 7(1):9-18
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.202905  PMID:28480027
The therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) have been reported for a wide range of diseases mainly via selectively reducing the amount of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of uveitis and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). In this study, we investigated whether HRS can mitigate EIU in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Norm group, Model group, HRS group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, and rats in the latter three groups were injected with equal amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce EIU of different severities (by 1 mg/kg of LPS, or 1/8 mg/kg of LPS). Rats in HRS group were injected with HRS intraperitoneally at three different modes to purse an ameliorating effect of EIU (10 mL/kg of HRS immediately after injection of 1 mg/kg of LPS, 20 mL/kg of HRS once a day for 1 week before injection of 1 mg/kg of LPS and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 8, 12 hours after LPS administration, or 20 mL/kg of HRS once a day for 1 week before injection of 1/8 mg/kg of LPS, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 8, 12, 24 hours and once a day for 3 weeks after LPS administration). Rats of DEX group were injected with 1 mL/kg of DEX solution intraperitoneally immediately after LPS administration. Rats in Norm and Model groups did not receive any treatment. All rats were examined under slit lamp microscope and graded according to the clinical signs of uveitis. Electroretinogram, quantitative analysis of protein in aqueous humor (AqH) and histological examination of iris and ciliary body were also carried out. Our results showed that HRS did not obviously ameliorate the signs of uveitis under slit lamp examination and the inflammatory cells infiltration around iris and cilliary body of EIU induced by 1 mg/kg or 1/8 mg/kg of LPS (P > 0.05), while DEX significantly reduced the inflammation reflected by the above two indicators (P < 0.05). The impaired retinal function of mild EIU induced by 1/8 mg/kg of LPS, showed by delay of peak time of b-wave of Dark adapted 3.0 electroretinogram, was not significantly restored by HRS (P > 0.05), while DEX had an obvious therapeutic effect (P < 0.05). However, HRS exerted an inhibition trend on elevation of protein in AqH of EIU induced by 1 mg/kg of LPS, and significantly reduced the increasing amount of protein in AqH of mild EIU induced by 1/8 mg/kg of LPS (P < 0.05). In conclusion, HRS could not obviously mitigate EIU in rats, while it could inhibit the elevation of AqH protein.
  9,215 435 1
Ozone therapy as a primary and sole treatment for acute bacterial infection: case report
Robert Jay Rowen
July-September 2018, 8(3):121-124
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.241078  PMID:30319768
The world is facing a crisis of antibiotic resistance, which impacts every treating physician on the planet. Thousands of patients die yearly in the USA from infections that have failed to respond to anti-infectives. Alarms have been ringing about bacterial infection fatality resurgence, the end of the antibiotic era, a calamity in progress. Ozone therapy has been used in medicine since World War I. However, it is not patentable and has suffered from lack of private source funding for research sufficient to have it accepted by the mainstream. Basic science, both in vivo and in vitro, research has found it to have several effects including modulating the immune system, enhancing circulation, destroying microorganisms including bacteria and viruses, and enhancing oxygen delivery and consumption by the body. This report presents background basic ozone science and a case report of acute bacterial infection – tick bite cellulitis, which immediately responded to ozone therapy as the sole treatment, and which fully resolved within 24-48 hours. Ozone therapy could be considered as an adjunctive or alternative therapy for bacterial infection.
  7,070 411 6
Ozone therapy: An overview of pharmacodynamics, current research, and clinical utility
Noel L Smith, Anthony L Wilson, Jason Gandhi, Sohrab Vatsia, Sardar Ali Khan
July-September 2017, 7(3):212-219
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215752  PMID:29152215
The use of ozone (O3) gas as a therapy in alternative medicine has attracted skepticism due to its unstable molecular structure. However, copious volumes of research have provided evidence that O3's dynamic resonance structures facilitate physiological interactions useful in treating a myriad of pathologies. Specifically, O3 therapy induces moderate oxidative stress when interacting with lipids. This interaction increases endogenous production of antioxidants, local perfusion, and oxygen delivery, as well as enhances immune responses. We have conducted a comprehensive review of O3 therapy, investigating its contraindications, routes and concentrations of administration, mechanisms of action, disinfectant properties in various microorganisms, and its medicinal use in different pathologies. We explore the therapeutic value of O3 in pathologies of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, central nervous system, head and neck, musculoskeletal, subcutaneous tissue, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite compelling evidence, further studies are essential to mark it as a viable and quintessential treatment option in medicine.
  5,891 1,051 47
“Real world survey” of hydrogen-controlled cancer: a follow-up report of 82 advanced cancer patients
Ji-Bing Chen, Xiao-Feng Kong, You-Yong Lv, Shu-Cun Qin, Xue-Jun Sun, Feng Mu, Tian-Yu Lu, Ke-Cheng Xu
July-September 2019, 9(3):115-121
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.266985  PMID:31552873
Advanced cancer treatment is a huge challenge and new ideas and strategies are required. Hydrogen exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that may be exploited to control cancer, the occurrence and progression of which is closely related to peroxidation and inflammation. We conducted a prospective follow-up study of 82 patients with stage III and IV cancer treated with hydrogen inhalation using the “real world evidence” method. After 3–46 months of follow-up, 12 patients died in stage IV. After 4 weeks of hydrogen inhalation, patients reported significant improvements in fatigue, insomnia, anorexia and pain. Furthermore, 41.5% of patients had improved physical status, with the best effect achieved in lung cancer patients and the poorest in patients with pancreatic and gynecologic cancers. Of the 58 cases with one or more abnormal tumor markers elevated, the markers were decreased at 13–45 days (median 23 days) after hydrogen inhalation in 36.2%. The greatest marker decrease was in achieved lung cancer and the lowest in pancreatic and hepatic malignancies. Of the 80 cases with tumors visible in imaging, the total disease control rate was 57.5%, with complete and partial remission appearing at 21–80 days (median 55 days) after hydrogen inhalation. The disease control rate was significantly higher in stage III patients than in stage IV patients (83.0% and 47.7%, respectively), with the lowest disease control rate in pancreatic cancer patients. No hematological toxicity was observed although minor adverse reactions that resolved spontaneously were seen in individual cases. In patients with advanced cancer, inhaled hydrogen can improve patients’ quality-of-life and control cancer progression. Hydrogen inhalation is a simple, low-cost treatment with few adverse reactions that warrants further investigation as a strategy for clinical rehabilitation of patients with advanced cancer. The study protocol received ethical approval from the Ethics Committee of Fuda Cancer Hospital of Jinan University on December 7, 2018 (approval number: Fuda20181207).
  6,140 480 2
Peripheral surgical wounding may induce cognitive impairment through interlukin-6-dependent mechanisms in aged mice
Yuanlin Dong, Zhipeng Xu, Lining Huang, Yiying Zhang, Zhongcong Xie
October-December 2016, 6(4):180-186
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196899  PMID:28217289
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased cost of medical care. However, the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD remain largely to be determined. We have found that the peripheral surgical wounding induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interlukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in rodents and humans. However, the role of IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of POCD is unknown. We therefore employed pharmacological (IL-6 antibody) and genetic (knockout of IL-6) approach to investigate whether IL-6 contributed to the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in aged mice. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia (peripheral surgical wounding) was established in 18-month-old wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice (n = 6 to 10 in each group). Brain level of IL-6 and cognitive function in the mice were determined by western blot, ELISA at the end of procedure, and Fear Conditioning System at 7 days after the procedure. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the level of IL-6 in the hippocampus of aged wild-type, but not IL-6 knockout mice. IL-6 antibody ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in the aged wild-type mice. Finally, the peripheral surgical wounding did not induce cognitive impairment in the aged IL-6 knockout mice. These data suggested that IL-6 would be a required pro-inflammatory cytokine for the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment. Given this, further studies are warranted to investigate the role of IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD.
  2,681 3,888 10
Case control study: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of mild traumatic brain injury persistent post-concussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder
Paul G Harch, Susan R Andrews, Edward F Fogarty, Juliette Lucarini, Keith W Van Meter
July-September 2017, 7(3):156-174
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215745  PMID:29152209
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are epidemic in United States Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Treatment of the combined diagnoses is limited. The aim of this study is to assess safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) for mild TBI PPCS and PTSD. Thirty military subjects aged 18–65 with PPCS with or without PTSD and from one or more blast-induced mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries that were a minimum of 1 year old and occurred after 9/11/2001 were studied. The measures included symptom lists, physical exam, neuropsychological and psychological testing on 29 subjects (1 dropout) and SPECT brain imaging pre and post HBOT. Comparison was made using SPECT imaging on 29 matched Controls. Side effects (30 subjects) experienced due to the HBOT: reversible middle ear barotrauma (n = 6), transient deterioration in symptoms (n = 7), reversible bronchospasm (n = 1), and increased anxiety (n = 2; not related to confinement); unrelated to HBOT: ureterolithiasis (n = 1), chest pain (n = 2). Significant improvement (29 subjects) was seen in neurological exam, symptoms, intelligence quotient, memory, measures of attention, dominant hand motor speed and dexterity, quality of life, general anxiety, PTSD, depression (including reduction in suicidal ideation), and reduced psychoactive medication usage. At 6-month follow-up subjects reported further symptomatic improvement. Compared to Controls the subjects' SPECT was significantly abnormal, significantly improved after 1 and 40 treatments, and became statistically indistinguishable from Controls in 75% of abnormal areas. HBOT was found to be safe and significantly effective for veterans with mild to moderate TBI PPCS with PTSD in all four outcome domains: clinical medicine, neuropsychology, psychology, and SPECT imaging. Veterans also experienced a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and reduction in psychoactive medication use.
  5,600 644 8
Ozone therapy in conjunction with oral antibiotics as a successful primary and sole treatment for chronic septic prosthetic joint: review and case report
Robert Jay Rowen
April-June 2018, 8(2):67-71
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.235139  PMID:30112169
The world is facing crisis in management of infectious diseases. The mainstay of treatment has been chemical anti-infectives. These drugs are failing, as superbugs emerge and medicine becomes more sophisticated with treatments such as prosthetic devices, which can harbor bacteria protected by biofilm. This case report describes a 68-year-old woman who received bilateral artificial hips on October 27, 2015. The right hip prosthesis subsequently became septic by June 2016. Three orthopedic surgeons offered her a several month program, which included removal of the prosthesis, implantation of an antibiotic impregnated “spacer” and months of intravenous antibiotics. Instead, she sought and received intravenous ozone therapy, local joint ozone gas injection, and nutritional supplements. She quickly improved. Subsequently, she was given oral Augmentin (875 mg three times daily) beginning at September 19, 2016 for 1 month, when a third culture returned positive for two oral organisms. She experienced even more rapid improvement. By October 12, she reported total resolution of symptoms. A subsequent MRI on November 30, 2016 showed total clearance of infection. This is the first report of a septic prosthetic joint infection completely resolving without some form of surgical intervention, debridement at the least. It is also the first to report such cure without the use of any parenteral antibiotics. This case and world literature suggest that ozone therapy could be considered as a useful adjunctive treatment for hard to treat infection and biofilm.
  5,671 417 3
Hydrogen therapy: from mechanism to cerebral diseases
Cheng-lin Liu, Kai Zhang, Gang Chen
January-March 2016, 6(1):48-54
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179346  PMID:27826423
The medicinal value of hydrogen (H 2 ) was ignored prior to research illustrating that inhalation of 2% H 2 can significantly decrease the damage of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion caused by oxidative stress via selective elimination of hydroxyl freebase (OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOOˉ). Subsequently, there have been numerous experiments on H 2 . Most research and trials involving the mechanisms underlying H 2 therapy show the effects of antioxygenation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Among quantities of diseases related with H 2 therapy, the brain disease is a hotspot as brain tissue and cell damage are easier to be induced by oxidative stress and other stimulations. In this review, emphasis is on stroke, traumatic brain injuries, and degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Taking into account the blood-brain barrier, penetrability, possible side effects, and the molecular properties of H 2 within a single comprehensive review should contribute to advancing both clinical and non-clinical research and therapies. A systematic introduction of H 2 therapy with regards to mechanisms and cerebral diseases both in animal and human subjects can make it easier to comprehend H 2 therapy and therefore provide the basis for further clinical strategy.
  5,064 530 8
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for traumatic brain injury: bench-to-bedside
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Ting Xu, Zhenni Guo, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
April-June 2016, 6(2):102-110
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.184720  PMID:27867476
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem in the United States. Survivors of TBI are often left with significant cognitive, behavioral, and communicative disabilities. So far there is no effective treatment/intervention in the daily clinical practice for TBI patients. The protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) have been proved in stroke; however, its efficiency in TBI remains controversial. In this review, we will summarize the results of HBOT in experimental and clinical TBI, elaborate the mechanisms, and bring out our current understanding and opinions for future studies.
  4,719 579 12
Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning: a reliable option for neuroprotection
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Nathanael Matei, Zhenni Guo, Ting Xu, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
January-March 2016, 6(1):20-32
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179337  PMID:27826420
Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide and clinically there is no effective therapy for neuroprotection. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been experimentally demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several models and has shown efficiency in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Compared with other preconditioning stimuli, HBO is benign and has clinically translational potential. In this review, we will summarize the results in experimental brain injury and clinical studies, elaborate the mechanisms of HBO-PC, and discuss regimes and opinions for future interventions in acute brain injury.
  4,685 506 4
Molecular hydrogen: a therapeutic antioxidant and beyond
Lei Huang
October-December 2016, 6(4):219-222
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196904  PMID:28217294
Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) medicine research has flourished since a landmark publication in Nature Medicine that revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of hydrogen gas in a focal stroke model. Emerging evidence has consistently demonstrated that molecular hydrogen is a promising therapeutic option for a variety of diseases and the underlying comprehensive mechanisms is beyond pure hydroxyl radicals scavenging. The non-toxicity at high concentrations and rapid cellular diffusion features of molecular hydrogen ensure the feasibility and readiness of its clinical translation to human patients.
  4,559 623 28
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in experimental and clinical stroke
Wei-wei Zhai, Liang Sun, Zheng-quan Yu, Gang Chen
April-June 2016, 6(2):111-118
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.184721  PMID:27867477
Stroke, which is defined as a neurologic deficit caused by sudden impaired blood supply, has been considered as a common cause of death and disability for decades. The World Health Organization has declared that almost every 5 seconds a new stroke occurs, placing immense socioeconomic burdens. However, the effective and available treatment strategies are still limited. Additionally, the most effective therapy, such as thrombolysis and stenting for ischemic stroke, generally requires a narrow therapeutic time window after the event. A large majority of patients cannot be admitted to hospital and receive these effective treatments for reperfusion timely. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been frequently applied and investigated in stroke since 1960s. Numerous basic and clinical studies have shown the beneficial efficacy for neurological outcome after stroke, and meanwhile many underlying mechanisms associated with neuroprotection have been illustrated, such as cerebral oxygenation promotion and metabolic improvement, blood-brain barrier protection, anti-inflammation and cerebral edema, intracranial pressure modulation, decreased oxidative-stress and apoptosis, increased vascular and neural regeneration. However, HBOT in human stroke is still not sufficiently evidence-based, due to the insufficient randomized double-blind controlled clinical studies. To date, there are no uniform criteria for the dose and session duration of HBOT in different strokes. Furthermore, the additional effect of HBOT combined with drugs and other treatment strategies are being investigated recently. Therefore, more experimental and clinical research is imperative to identify the mechanisms more clearly and to explore the best protocol of HBOT in stroke treatment.
  4,419 612 15
Clinical utility of ozone therapy for musculoskeletal disorders
Omar Seyam, Noel L Smith, Inefta Reid, Jason Gandhi, Wendy Jiang, Sardar Ali Khan
July-September 2018, 8(3):103-110
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.241075  PMID:30319765
Oxygen-ozone (O3) therapy serves as an alternative medical technique that increases the oxygen in the body along with the introduction of O3. O3 therapy has finally reached a level where the biological mechanisms of action have been understood, showing that they are in the domain of physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Few clinical applications have been reviewed here as well as exemplifying that O3 therapy is particularly useful in musculoskeletal disorders. In the therapeutic range, O3 can be used as a more effective and safe substitute of standard medications. O3 therapy has been used for many years for its ability to inactivate various viruses, cancer, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome but is now making strides in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, lumbar facet joint syndrome, subacromial bursitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteoarthritis, hip bursitis, shoulder adhesive capsulitis, herniated disc, and temporomandibular joint disorder.
  4,296 650 13
Daily ingestion of alkaline electrolyzed water containing hydrogen influences human health, including gastrointestinal symptoms
Yoshinori Tanaka, Yasuhiro Saihara, Kyoko Izumotani, Hajime Nakamura
October-December 2018, 8(4):160-166
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.248267  PMID:30713669
In Japan, alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) apparatus have been approved as a medical device. And for the patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, drinking AEW has been found to be effective in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms. But some users of AEW apparatus do not have abdominal indefinite complaint. Little attention has been given to the benefit for the users which have no abdominal indefinite complaint. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect on health, including gastrointestinal symptoms, when a person without abdominal indefinite complaint, etc., drinks AEW on a daily basis. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial has been designed. Four-week period of everyday water drinking, PW drinking group: drink purified tap water as a placebo, AEW drinking group: drink alkaline electrolyzed water which made by electrolysis of purified tap water. Before the experiment and after the 4-week period of water drinking, Blood tests, physical fitness evaluations, and questionnaire evaluations is conducted. In this study, we did not specifically select patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Sufficiently clear effect could not be confirmed. But the stools were more normal, and, as shown in the previous report, that drinking AEW is considered to contribute to intestinal normalization. In addition, when drinking AEW, a high proportion of the respondents said that they felt they were able to sleep soundly, and the proportion of subjects who answered that they felt good when awakening increased. The effect of reducing oxidative stress, thus allowing for improved sleep, was exhibited by drinking AEW containing hydrogen, which is considered to be an antioxidant substance. This research were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine (No. 837) and were registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN000031800) on March 22, 2018.
  4,491 419 2
Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a juvenile rat model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury
Lei Huang, Andre Obenaus, Mary Hamer, John H Zhang
October-December 2016, 6(4):187-193
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196900  PMID:28217290
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is an important medical concern for adolescent athletes that can lead to long-term disabilities. Multiple mild injuries may exacerbate tissue damage resulting in cumulative brain injury and poor functional recovery. In the present study, we investigated the increased brain vulnerability to rmTBI and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment using a juvenile rat model of rmTBI. Two episodes of mild cortical controlled impact (3 days apart) were induced in juvenile rats. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was applied 1 hour/day × 3 days at 2 atmosphere absolute consecutively, starting at 1 day after initial mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Neuropathology was assessed by multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tissue immunohistochemistry. After repetitive mTBI, there were increases in T2-weighted imaging-defined cortical lesions and susceptibility weighted imaging-defined cortical microhemorrhages, correlated with brain tissue gliosis at the site of impact. HBO treatment significantly decreased the MRI-identified abnormalities and tissue histopathology. Our findings suggest that HBO treatment improves the cumulative tissue damage in juvenile brain following rmTBI. Such therapy regimens could be considered in adolescent athletes at the risk of repeated concussions exposures.
  2,955 1,925 8
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for mild traumatic brain injury persistent postconcussion syndrome: a randomized controlled trial
Paul G Harch, Susan R Andrews, Cara J Rowe, Johannes R Lischka, Mark H Townsend, Qingzhao Yu, Donald E Mercante
January-March 2020, 10(1):8-20
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.279978  PMID:32189664
Persistent postconcussion syndrome (PPCS) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a significant public health and military problem for which there is limited treatment evidence. The aim of this study was to determine whether forty 150 kPa hyperbaric oxygen therapies (HBOTs) can improve symptoms and cognitive function in subjects with the PPCS of mTBI, using a randomized controlled crossover design with 2-month follow-up. Sixty-three civilian and military subjects with mTBI/PPCS were randomized to either 40 HBOTs at 150 kPa/60 minutes, once daily, 5 days per week in 8 weeks or an equivalent no-treatment control period. The Control Group was then crossed over to HBOT. Subjects underwent symptom, neuropsychological, and psychological testing, before and after treatment or control with retesting 2 months after the 40th HBOT. Fifty subjects completed the protocol with primary outcome testing. HBOT subjects experienced significant improvements in Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, Memory Index, Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Hamilton Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Quality Of Life after Brain Injury compared to the Control Group. After crossing over to HBOT the Control Group experienced near-identical significant improvements. Further improvements were experienced by both groups during the 2-month follow-up period. These data indicate that 40 HBOTs at 150 kPa/60 minutes demonstrated statistically significant improvements in postconcussion and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms, memory, cognitive functions, depression, anxiety, sleep, and quality of life in civilian and military subjects with mTBI/PPCS compared to controls. Improvements persisted at least 2 months after the 40th HBOT. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02089594) on March 18, 2014 and with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration under Investigational New Drug #113823. The Institutional Review Boards of the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Office of Research Protections Human Research Protection Office and the Louisiana State University School of Medicine (approval No. 7381) approved the study on May 13, 2014 and December 20, 2013, respectively.
  3,982 735 1
Rationale for ozone-therapy as an adjuvant therapy in COVID-19: a narrative review
Giovanni Tommaso Ranaldi, Emanuele Rocco Villani, Laura Franza
July-September 2020, 10(3):134-138
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.289462  PMID:33004712
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the respiratory disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 and is characterized by clinical manifestations ranging from mild, flu-like symptoms to severe respiratory insufficiency and multi-organ failure. Patients with more severe symptoms may require intensive care treatments and face a high mortality risk. Also, thrombotic complications such as pulmonary embolisms and disseminated intravascular coagulation are frequent in these patients. Indeed, COVID-19 is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response resembling a cytokine storm, which is associated to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications. To date, no specific treatments are available for COVID-19 and its life-threatening complication. Immunomodulatory drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine and interleukin-6 inhibitors, as well as antithrombotic drugs such as heparin and low molecular weight heparin, are currently being administered with some benefit. Ozone therapy consists in the administration of a mixture of ozone and oxygen, called medical ozone, which has been used for over a century as an unconventional medicine practice for several diseases. Medical ozone rationale in COVID-19 is the possibility of contrasting endothelial dysfunction, modulating the immune response and acting as a virustatic agent. Thus, medical ozone could help to decrease lung inflammation, slow down viral growth, regulate lung circulation and oxygenation and prevent microvascular thrombosis. Ozone-therapy could be considered a feasible, cost-effective and easy to administer adjuvant therapy while waiting for the synthesis of a therapy or the development of the vaccine.
  4,306 396 -
Ozonated oil in wound healing: what has already been proven?
Ana Paula Anzolin, Níncia Lucca da Silveira-Kaross, Charise Dallazem Bertol
January-March 2020, 10(1):54-59
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.279985  PMID:32189671
Acute or chronic inflammatory reactions aim to control lesions, resist to pathogens attack and repair damaged tissue. The therapeutic administration of ozone known as ozone therapy appears as a possible treatment for tissue repair, as it promotes the healing of wounds. It has bactericidal, antiviral and antifungal properties and has been used as a therapeutic resource to treat inflammation. The objective was to carry out an integrative review regarding the use of ozonated oil in acute and chronic inflammations. The keywords “ozone therapy,” “inflammation” and “ozone” were used in the Portuguese, Spanish and English languages. The paper selection was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 28 articles were selected. It has been seen that ozonated oil is effective in healing cutaneous wounds. The beneficial effects are due to the healing of wounds, due to the reduction of microbial infection, debridement effect, modulation of the inflammatory phase, stimulation to angiogenesis as well as biological and enzymatic reactions that favor the oxygen metabolism, improving the wound cicatrization. In addition to promoting healing, ozonated oil reduces symptoms related to skin burns, prevents post-lesion hyperpigmentation, and reduces the pain of aphthous ulcers. Therefore, ozonated oil represents an effective and inexpensive therapeutic alternative that must be implanted in the public health system.
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Hydrogen-rich water for improvements of mood, anxiety, and autonomic nerve function in daily life
Kei Mizuno, Akihiro T Sasaki, Kyoko Ebisu, Kanako Tajima, Osami Kajimoto, Junzo Nojima, Hirohiko Kuratsune, Hiroshi Hori, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
October-December 2017, 7(4):247-255
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.222448  PMID:29497485
Health and a vibrant life are sought by everyone. To improve quality of life (QOL), maintain a healthy state, and prevent various diseases, evaluations of the effects of potentially QOL-increasing factors are important. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation cause deteriorations in central nervous system function, leading to low QOL. In healthy individuals, aging, job stress, and cognitive load over several hours also induce increases in oxidative stress, suggesting that preventing the accumulation of oxidative stress caused by daily stress and daily work contributes to maintaining QOL and ameliorating the effects of aging. Hydrogen has anti-oxidant activity and can prevent inflammation, and may thus contribute to improve QOL. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the QOL of adult volunteers using psychophysiological tests, including questionnaires and tests of autonomic nerve function and cognitive function. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with a two-way crossover design, 26 volunteers (13 females, 13 males; mean age, 34.4 ± 9.9 years) were randomized to either a group administered oral HRW (600 mL/d) or placebo water (PLW, 600 mL/d) for 4 weeks. Change ratios (post-treatment/pre-treatment) for K6 score and sympathetic nerve activity during the resting state were significantly lower after HRW administration than after PLW administration. These results suggest that HRW may reinforce QOL through effects that increase central nervous system functions involving mood, anxiety, and autonomic nerve function.
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Clinical utility of ozone therapy in dental and oral medicine
Yiji Suh, Shrey Patel, Re Kaitlyn, Jason Gandhi, Gunjan Joshi, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
July-September 2019, 9(3):163-167
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.266997  PMID:31552882
Ozone is a highly reactive compound composed of three oxygen atoms that acts as an oxidant and oxidizer. It exists at the ground level as an air pollutant and a constituent of urban smog, as well as in the Earth’s upper atmosphere as a protective layer from ultraviolet rays. Healthy cells contain antioxidants such as vitamins C and E to protect against ozone oxidization. However, pathogens such as bacteria contain very trace amounts of antioxidants in their membranes, which make them susceptible to ozone and destroy the cell membrane. This review explores the history, composition, and use of ozone worldwide in dentistry. Ozone therapy has thus far been utilized with wound healing, dental caries, oral lichen planus, gingivitis and periodontitis, halitosis, osteonecrosis of the jaw, post-surgical pain, plaque and biofilms, root canals, dentin hypersensitivity, temporomandibular joint disorders, and teeth whitening. The utility of ozone will undoubtedly grow if studies continue to show positive outcomes in an increasing number of dental conditions.
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