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   2016| July-September  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 14, 2016

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Brain globins in physiology and pathology
Luo-kun Xie, Shao-hua Yang
July-September 2016, 6(3):154-163
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191361  PMID:27867483
Globins are globular proteins for either transport or storage of oxygen which are critical for cellular metabolism. Four globins have been identified in rodent and human brains. Among them, neuroglobin, cytoglobin and hemoglobin chains are constitutively expressed in normal brain, while myoglobin is only expressed in some neurological disorders. Studies on the molecular structure, expression and functional features of these brain globins indicated that they may play crucial roles in maintenance of neural cell survival and activity, including neurons and astrocytes. Their regulation in neurological disorders may help thoroughly understand initiation and progression of ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and glioma, etc. Elucidation of the brain globin functions might remarkably improve medical strategies that sustain neurological homeostasis and treat neurological diseases. Here the expression pattern and functions of brain globins and their involvement in neurological disorders are reviewed.
  734 188 3
Hypoxia therapy--a new hope for the treatment of mitochondrial dysfunctions
Jun-long Huang, Anatol Manaenko, Zhou-heng Ye, Xue-jun Sun, Qin Hu
July-September 2016, 6(3):174-176
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191365  PMID:27867487
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are characteristic features of numerous diseases and play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Despite intensive research in this area, there are no approved therapies that directly target mitochondria. Recently a study by Jain et al. from Massachusetts General Hospital, USA reported the effectiveness of hypoxia for treatment of mitochondrial disease in mice. In this commentary, we summarized the potential mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial dysfunction, and clinical limitations of hypoxia as a therapy for human patients. We hope that our concerns will be helpful for further clinical studies addressing moderate hypoxia in mitochondrial dysfunction.
  661 163 -
Donor pretreatment with carbon monoxide prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury following heart transplantation in rats
Noritomo Fujisaki, Keisuke Kohama, Takeshi Nishimura, Hayato Yamashita, Michiko Ishikawa, Akihiro Kanematsu, Taihei Yamada, Sungsoo Lee, Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Joji Kotani, Atsunori Nakao
July-September 2016, 6(3):122-129
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191357  PMID:27867479
Because inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) provides potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that treatment of organ donors with inhaled CO would decrease graft injury after heart transplantation. Hearts were heterotopically transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats after 8 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Donor rats were exposed to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million for 24 hours via a gas-exposure chamber. Severity of myocardial injury was determined by total serum creatine phosphokinase and troponin I levels at three hours after reperfusion. In addition, Affymetrix gene array analysis of mRNA transcripts was performed on the heart graft tissue prior to implantation. Recipients of grafts from CO-exposed donors had lower levels of serum troponin I and creatine phosphokinase; less upregulation of mRNA for interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α; and fewer infiltrating cells. Although donor pretreatment with CO altered the expression of 49 genes expressly represented on the array, we could not obtain meaningful data to explain the mechanisms by which CO potentiated the protective effects.Pretreatment with CO gas before organ procurement effectively protected cardiac grafts from ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. A clinical report review indicated that CO-poisoned organ donors may be comparable to non-poisoned donors.
  608 163 -
Normobaric oxygen treatment in acute ischemic stroke: a clinical perspective
Shu-hai Shi, Zhi-feng Qi, Yu-min Luo, Xun-ming Ji, Ke Jian Liu
July-September 2016, 6(3):147-153
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191360  PMID:27867482
Acute ischemic stroke is a common and serious neurological disease. Oxygen therapy has been shown to increase oxygen supply to ischemic tissues and improve outcomes after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), an easily applicable and non-invasive method, shows protective effects on acute ischemic stroke animals and patients in pilot studies. However, many critical scientific questions are still unclear, such as the therapeutic time window of NBO, the long-term effects and the benefits of NBO in large clinic trials. In this article, we review the current literatures on NBO treatment of acute ischemic stroke in preclinical and clinical studies and try to analyze and identify the key gaps or unknowns in our understanding about NBO. Based on these analyses, we provide suggestions for future studies.
  630 131 3
The production of high dose hydrogen gas by the AMS-H-01 for treatment of disease
Richard Camara, Lei Huang, John H Zhang
July-September 2016, 6(3):164-166
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191362  PMID:27867484
Hydrogen gas is a new and promising treatment option for a variety of diseases including stroke. Here, we introduce the AMS-H-01, a medically approved machine capable of safely producing ~66% hydrogen gas. Furthermore, we propose the significance of this machine in the future of hydrogen gas research.
  594 91 -
Temporal variation in the response of tumors to hyperoxia with breathing carbogen and oxygen
Hua-gang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Gai-xin Du, Sassan Hodge, Harold M Swartz
July-September 2016, 6(3):138-146
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191359  PMID:27867481
The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O 2 + 5% CO 2 ) and 100% oxygen inhalation on partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor was investigated. RIF-1 tumors were innoculated in C3H mice, and aggregates of oximetry probe, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc), was implanted in each tumor. A baseline tumor pO 2 was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry for 20 minutes in anesthetized mice breathing 30% O 2 and then the gas was switched to carbogen or 100 % oxygen for 60 minutes. These experiments were repeated for 10 days. RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a baseline tissue pO 2 of 6.2-8.3 mmHg in mice breathing 30% O 2 . Carbogen and 100% oxygen significantly increased tumor pO 2 on days 1 to 5, with a maximal increase at approximately 32-45 minutes on each day. However, the extent of increase in pO 2 from the baseline declined significantly on day 5 and day 10. The results provide quantitative information on the effect of hyperoxic gas inhalation on tumor pO 2 over the course of 10 days. EPR oximetry can be effectively used to repeatedly monitor tumor pO 2 and test hyperoxic methods for potential clinical applications.
  496 89 -
Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning
Jan H Baumert, Anna B Roehl, Sandra Funcke, Marc Hein
July-September 2016, 6(3):130-137
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191358  PMID:27867480
Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion) was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation) and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work) were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning.
  483 77 1
Successful treatment with hydrogen rich water in a case of chronic graft-versus-host-disease
Li-ren Qian, Jian-liang Shen
July-September 2016, 6(3):177-179
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191366  PMID:27867488
The incidence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease is rising year by year, which has become the leading cause of non-transplantation related death and has become the most difficult complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to deal with. Inflammation and fibrosis play dominant roles in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host-disease. Studies have shown that molecular hydrogen has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-fibrosis effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that molecular hydrogen may have therapeutic effects on chronic graft-versus-host-disease. Here, we report a patient with severe chronic graft-versus-host-disease successfully treated by drinking hydrogen rich water which may be a safe and effective method for chronic graft-versus-host-disease.
  470 88 1
Effects of normobaric versus hyperbaric oxygen on cell injury induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in acute brain slices
Laurent Chazalviel, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Nicolas Vallée, Jean-Jacques Risso, Stéphane Besnard, Jacques H Abraini
July-September 2016, 6(3):169-173
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191364  PMID:27867486
Normobaric oxygen (NBO) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) are emerging as a possible co-treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Both have been shown to reduce infarct volume, to improve neurologic outcome, to promote endogenous tissue plasminogen activator-induced thrombolysis and cerebral blood flow, and to improve tissue oxygenation through oxygen diffusion in the ischemic areas, thereby questioning the interest of HBO compared to NBO. In the present study, in order to investigate and compare the oxygen diffusion effects of NBO and HBO on acute ischemic stroke independently of their effects at the vascular level, we used acute brain slices exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation, an ex vivo model of brain ischemia that allows investigating the acute effects of NBO (partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) = 1 atmospheres absolute (ATA) = 0.1 MPa) and HBO (pO 2 = 2.5 ATA = 0.25 MPa) through tissue oxygenation on ischemia-induced cell injury as measured by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. We found that HBO, but not NBO, reduced oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced cell injury, indicating that passive tissue oxygenation (i.e. without vascular support) of the brain parenchyma requires oxygen partial pressure higher than 1 ATA.
  444 90 1
What's new in Medical Gas Research: Highlights for 2015
Zhou-heng Ye, Xue-jun Sun
July-September 2016, 6(3):167-168
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191363  PMID:27867485
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