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  Most popular articles (Since November 24, 2015)

 
 
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CASE REPORT
Subacute normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in drowning, reversal of brain volume loss: a case report
Paul G Harch, Edward F Fogarty
April-June 2017, 7(2):144-149
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.208521  PMID:28744368
A 2-year-old girl experienced cardiac arrest after cold water drowning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed deep gray matter injury on day 4 and cerebral atrophy with gray and white matter loss on day 32. Patient had no speech, gait, or responsiveness to commands on day 48 at hospital discharge. She received normobaric 100% oxygen treatment (2 L/minute for 45 minutes by nasal cannula, twice/day) since day 56 and then hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) at 1.3 atmosphere absolute (131.7 kPa) air/45 minutes, 5 days/week for 40 sessions since day 79; visually apparent and/or physical examination-documented neurological improvement occurred upon initiating each therapy. After HBOT, the patient had normal speech and cognition, assisted gait, residual fine motor and temperament deficits. MRI at 5 months after injury and 27 days after HBOT showed near-normalization of ventricles and reversal of atrophy. Subacute normobaric oxygen and HBOT were able to restore drowning-induced cortical gray matter and white matter loss, as documented by sequential MRI, and simultaneous neurological function, as documented by video and physical examinations.
  50,448 1,825 1
REVIEWS
The role of nitric oxide in stroke
Zhou-qing Chen, Ru-tao Mou, Dong-xia Feng, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
July-September 2017, 7(3):194-203
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215750  PMID:29152213
Stroke is considered to be an acute cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. The high incidence and poor prognosis of stroke suggest that it is a highly disabling and highly lethal disease which can pose a serious threat to human health. Nitric oxide (NO), a common gas in nature, which is often thought as a toxic gas, because of its intimate relationship with the pathological processes of many diseases, especially in the regulation of blood flow and cell inflammation. However, recent years have witnessed an increased interest that NO plays a significant and positive role in stroke as an essential gas signal molecule. In view of the fact that the neuroprotective effect of NO is closely related to its concentration, cell type and time, only in the appropriate circumstances can NO play a protective effect. The purpose of this review is to summarize the roles of NO in ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
  15,999 221 9
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on endotoxin-induced uveitis
Wei-ming Yan, Lei Zhang, Tao Chen, Guan-hua Zhao, Pan Long, Jing An, Zuo-ming Zhang
January-March 2017, 7(1):9-18
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.202905  PMID:28480027
The therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) have been reported for a wide range of diseases mainly via selectively reducing the amount of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of uveitis and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). In this study, we investigated whether HRS can mitigate EIU in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Norm group, Model group, HRS group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, and rats in the latter three groups were injected with equal amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce EIU of different severities (by 1 mg/kg of LPS, or 1/8 mg/kg of LPS). Rats in HRS group were injected with HRS intraperitoneally at three different modes to purse an ameliorating effect of EIU (10 mL/kg of HRS immediately after injection of 1 mg/kg of LPS, 20 mL/kg of HRS once a day for 1 week before injection of 1 mg/kg of LPS and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 8, 12 hours after LPS administration, or 20 mL/kg of HRS once a day for 1 week before injection of 1/8 mg/kg of LPS, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 8, 12, 24 hours and once a day for 3 weeks after LPS administration). Rats of DEX group were injected with 1 mL/kg of DEX solution intraperitoneally immediately after LPS administration. Rats in Norm and Model groups did not receive any treatment. All rats were examined under slit lamp microscope and graded according to the clinical signs of uveitis. Electroretinogram, quantitative analysis of protein in aqueous humor (AqH) and histological examination of iris and ciliary body were also carried out. Our results showed that HRS did not obviously ameliorate the signs of uveitis under slit lamp examination and the inflammatory cells infiltration around iris and cilliary body of EIU induced by 1 mg/kg or 1/8 mg/kg of LPS (P > 0.05), while DEX significantly reduced the inflammation reflected by the above two indicators (P < 0.05). The impaired retinal function of mild EIU induced by 1/8 mg/kg of LPS, showed by delay of peak time of b-wave of Dark adapted 3.0 electroretinogram, was not significantly restored by HRS (P > 0.05), while DEX had an obvious therapeutic effect (P < 0.05). However, HRS exerted an inhibition trend on elevation of protein in AqH of EIU induced by 1 mg/kg of LPS, and significantly reduced the increasing amount of protein in AqH of mild EIU induced by 1/8 mg/kg of LPS (P < 0.05). In conclusion, HRS could not obviously mitigate EIU in rats, while it could inhibit the elevation of AqH protein.
  7,204 268 -
REVIEWS
Hydrogen therapy: from mechanism to cerebral diseases
Cheng-lin Liu, Kai Zhang, Gang Chen
January-March 2016, 6(1):48-54
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179346  PMID:27826423
The medicinal value of hydrogen (H 2 ) was ignored prior to research illustrating that inhalation of 2% H 2 can significantly decrease the damage of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion caused by oxidative stress via selective elimination of hydroxyl freebase (OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOOˉ). Subsequently, there have been numerous experiments on H 2 . Most research and trials involving the mechanisms underlying H 2 therapy show the effects of antioxygenation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Among quantities of diseases related with H 2 therapy, the brain disease is a hotspot as brain tissue and cell damage are easier to be induced by oxidative stress and other stimulations. In this review, emphasis is on stroke, traumatic brain injuries, and degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Taking into account the blood-brain barrier, penetrability, possible side effects, and the molecular properties of H 2 within a single comprehensive review should contribute to advancing both clinical and non-clinical research and therapies. A systematic introduction of H 2 therapy with regards to mechanisms and cerebral diseases both in animal and human subjects can make it easier to comprehend H 2 therapy and therefore provide the basis for further clinical strategy.
  3,232 337 5
Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning: a reliable option for neuroprotection
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Nathanael Matei, Zhenni Guo, Ting Xu, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
January-March 2016, 6(1):20-32
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179337  PMID:27826420
Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide and clinically there is no effective therapy for neuroprotection. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been experimentally demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several models and has shown efficiency in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Compared with other preconditioning stimuli, HBO is benign and has clinically translational potential. In this review, we will summarize the results in experimental brain injury and clinical studies, elaborate the mechanisms of HBO-PC, and discuss regimes and opinions for future interventions in acute brain injury.
  3,107 324 3
CASE REPORT
Ozone therapy as a primary and sole treatment for acute bacterial infection: case report
Robert Jay Rowen
July-September 2018, 8(3):121-124
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.241078  PMID:30319768
The world is facing a crisis of antibiotic resistance, which impacts every treating physician on the planet. Thousands of patients die yearly in the USA from infections that have failed to respond to anti-infectives. Alarms have been ringing about bacterial infection fatality resurgence, the end of the antibiotic era, a calamity in progress. Ozone therapy has been used in medicine since World War I. However, it is not patentable and has suffered from lack of private source funding for research sufficient to have it accepted by the mainstream. Basic science, both in vivo and in vitro, research has found it to have several effects including modulating the immune system, enhancing circulation, destroying microorganisms including bacteria and viruses, and enhancing oxygen delivery and consumption by the body. This report presents background basic ozone science and a case report of acute bacterial infection – tick bite cellulitis, which immediately responded to ozone therapy as the sole treatment, and which fully resolved within 24-48 hours. Ozone therapy could be considered as an adjunctive or alternative therapy for bacterial infection.
  3,167 110 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Peripheral surgical wounding may induce cognitive impairment through interlukin-6-dependent mechanisms in aged mice
Yuanlin Dong, Zhipeng Xu, Lining Huang, Yiying Zhang, Zhongcong Xie
October-December 2016, 6(4):180-186
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196899  PMID:28217289
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased cost of medical care. However, the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD remain largely to be determined. We have found that the peripheral surgical wounding induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interlukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in rodents and humans. However, the role of IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of POCD is unknown. We therefore employed pharmacological (IL-6 antibody) and genetic (knockout of IL-6) approach to investigate whether IL-6 contributed to the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in aged mice. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia (peripheral surgical wounding) was established in 18-month-old wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice (n = 6 to 10 in each group). Brain level of IL-6 and cognitive function in the mice were determined by western blot, ELISA at the end of procedure, and Fear Conditioning System at 7 days after the procedure. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the level of IL-6 in the hippocampus of aged wild-type, but not IL-6 knockout mice. IL-6 antibody ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in the aged wild-type mice. Finally, the peripheral surgical wounding did not induce cognitive impairment in the aged IL-6 knockout mice. These data suggested that IL-6 would be a required pro-inflammatory cytokine for the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment. Given this, further studies are warranted to investigate the role of IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD.
  1,059 1,858 5
CASE REPORT
Ozone therapy in conjunction with oral antibiotics as a successful primary and sole treatment for chronic septic prosthetic joint: review and case report
Robert Jay Rowen
April-June 2018, 8(2):67-71
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.235139  PMID:30112169
The world is facing crisis in management of infectious diseases. The mainstay of treatment has been chemical anti-infectives. These drugs are failing, as superbugs emerge and medicine becomes more sophisticated with treatments such as prosthetic devices, which can harbor bacteria protected by biofilm. This case report describes a 68-year-old woman who received bilateral artificial hips on October 27, 2015. The right hip prosthesis subsequently became septic by June 2016. Three orthopedic surgeons offered her a several month program, which included removal of the prosthesis, implantation of an antibiotic impregnated “spacer” and months of intravenous antibiotics. Instead, she sought and received intravenous ozone therapy, local joint ozone gas injection, and nutritional supplements. She quickly improved. Subsequently, she was given oral Augmentin (875 mg three times daily) beginning at September 19, 2016 for 1 month, when a third culture returned positive for two oral organisms. She experienced even more rapid improvement. By October 12, she reported total resolution of symptoms. A subsequent MRI on November 30, 2016 showed total clearance of infection. This is the first report of a septic prosthetic joint infection completely resolving without some form of surgical intervention, debridement at the least. It is also the first to report such cure without the use of any parenteral antibiotics. This case and world literature suggest that ozone therapy could be considered as a useful adjunctive treatment for hard to treat infection and biofilm.
  2,676 140 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Gas transport during in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing of inert gas therapies
Ira Katz, Marc Palgen, Jacqueline Murdock, Andrew R Martin, Géraldine Farjot, Georges Caillibotte
January-March 2016, 6(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179342  PMID:27826419
New gas therapies using inert gases such as xenon and argon are being studied, which require in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments. Examples of the kinetics of gas transport during such experiments are analyzed in this paper. Using analytical and numerical models, we analyze an in vitro experiment for gas transport to a 96 cell well plate and an in vivo delivery to a small animal chamber, where the key processes considered are the wash-in of test gas into an apparatus dead volume, the diffusion of test gas through the liquid media in a well of a cell test plate, and the pharmacokinetics in a rat. In the case of small animals in a chamber, the key variable controlling the kinetics is the chamber wash-in time constant that is a function of the chamber volume and the gas flow rate. For cells covered by a liquid media the diffusion of gas through the liquid media is the dominant mechanism, such that liquid depth and the gas diffusion constant are the key parameters. The key message from these analyses is that the transport of gas during preclinical experiments can be important in determining the true dose as experienced at the site of action in an animal or to a cell.
  2,276 258 -
REVIEWS
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for traumatic brain injury: bench-to-bedside
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Ting Xu, Zhenni Guo, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
April-June 2016, 6(2):102-110
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.184720  PMID:27867476
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem in the United States. Survivors of TBI are often left with significant cognitive, behavioral, and communicative disabilities. So far there is no effective treatment/intervention in the daily clinical practice for TBI patients. The protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) have been proved in stroke; however, its efficiency in TBI remains controversial. In this review, we will summarize the results of HBOT in experimental and clinical TBI, elaborate the mechanisms, and bring out our current understanding and opinions for future studies.
  2,055 366 7
REVIEW
Molecular hydrogen: a therapeutic antioxidant and beyond
Lei Huang
October-December 2016, 6(4):219-222
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196904  PMID:28217294
Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) medicine research has flourished since a landmark publication in Nature Medicine that revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of hydrogen gas in a focal stroke model. Emerging evidence has consistently demonstrated that molecular hydrogen is a promising therapeutic option for a variety of diseases and the underlying comprehensive mechanisms is beyond pure hydroxyl radicals scavenging. The non-toxicity at high concentrations and rapid cellular diffusion features of molecular hydrogen ensure the feasibility and readiness of its clinical translation to human patients.
  1,991 341 8
REVIEWS
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in experimental and clinical stroke
Wei-wei Zhai, Liang Sun, Zheng-quan Yu, Gang Chen
April-June 2016, 6(2):111-118
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.184721  PMID:27867477
Stroke, which is defined as a neurologic deficit caused by sudden impaired blood supply, has been considered as a common cause of death and disability for decades. The World Health Organization has declared that almost every 5 seconds a new stroke occurs, placing immense socioeconomic burdens. However, the effective and available treatment strategies are still limited. Additionally, the most effective therapy, such as thrombolysis and stenting for ischemic stroke, generally requires a narrow therapeutic time window after the event. A large majority of patients cannot be admitted to hospital and receive these effective treatments for reperfusion timely. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been frequently applied and investigated in stroke since 1960s. Numerous basic and clinical studies have shown the beneficial efficacy for neurological outcome after stroke, and meanwhile many underlying mechanisms associated with neuroprotection have been illustrated, such as cerebral oxygenation promotion and metabolic improvement, blood-brain barrier protection, anti-inflammation and cerebral edema, intracranial pressure modulation, decreased oxidative-stress and apoptosis, increased vascular and neural regeneration. However, HBOT in human stroke is still not sufficiently evidence-based, due to the insufficient randomized double-blind controlled clinical studies. To date, there are no uniform criteria for the dose and session duration of HBOT in different strokes. Furthermore, the additional effect of HBOT combined with drugs and other treatment strategies are being investigated recently. Therefore, more experimental and clinical research is imperative to identify the mechanisms more clearly and to explore the best protocol of HBOT in stroke treatment.
  1,864 351 7
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Case control study: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of mild traumatic brain injury persistent post-concussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder
Paul G Harch, Susan R Andrews, Edward F Fogarty, Juliette Lucarini, Keith W Van Meter
July-September 2017, 7(3):156-174
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215745  PMID:29152209
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are epidemic in United States Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Treatment of the combined diagnoses is limited. The aim of this study is to assess safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) for mild TBI PPCS and PTSD. Thirty military subjects aged 18–65 with PPCS with or without PTSD and from one or more blast-induced mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries that were a minimum of 1 year old and occurred after 9/11/2001 were studied. The measures included symptom lists, physical exam, neuropsychological and psychological testing on 29 subjects (1 dropout) and SPECT brain imaging pre and post HBOT. Comparison was made using SPECT imaging on 29 matched Controls. Side effects (30 subjects) experienced due to the HBOT: reversible middle ear barotrauma (n = 6), transient deterioration in symptoms (n = 7), reversible bronchospasm (n = 1), and increased anxiety (n = 2; not related to confinement); unrelated to HBOT: ureterolithiasis (n = 1), chest pain (n = 2). Significant improvement (29 subjects) was seen in neurological exam, symptoms, intelligence quotient, memory, measures of attention, dominant hand motor speed and dexterity, quality of life, general anxiety, PTSD, depression (including reduction in suicidal ideation), and reduced psychoactive medication usage. At 6-month follow-up subjects reported further symptomatic improvement. Compared to Controls the subjects' SPECT was significantly abnormal, significantly improved after 1 and 40 treatments, and became statistically indistinguishable from Controls in 75% of abnormal areas. HBOT was found to be safe and significantly effective for veterans with mild to moderate TBI PPCS with PTSD in all four outcome domains: clinical medicine, neuropsychology, psychology, and SPECT imaging. Veterans also experienced a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and reduction in psychoactive medication use.
  1,871 324 -
REVIEWS
Ozone therapy: An overview of pharmacodynamics, current research, and clinical utility
Noel L Smith, Anthony L Wilson, Jason Gandhi, Sohrab Vatsia, Sardar Ali Khan
July-September 2017, 7(3):212-219
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215752  PMID:29152215
The use of ozone (O3) gas as a therapy in alternative medicine has attracted skepticism due to its unstable molecular structure. However, copious volumes of research have provided evidence that O3's dynamic resonance structures facilitate physiological interactions useful in treating a myriad of pathologies. Specifically, O3 therapy induces moderate oxidative stress when interacting with lipids. This interaction increases endogenous production of antioxidants, local perfusion, and oxygen delivery, as well as enhances immune responses. We have conducted a comprehensive review of O3 therapy, investigating its contraindications, routes and concentrations of administration, mechanisms of action, disinfectant properties in various microorganisms, and its medicinal use in different pathologies. We explore the therapeutic value of O3 in pathologies of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, central nervous system, head and neck, musculoskeletal, subcutaneous tissue, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite compelling evidence, further studies are essential to mark it as a viable and quintessential treatment option in medicine.
  1,519 406 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a juvenile rat model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury
Lei Huang, Andre Obenaus, Mary Hamer, John H Zhang
October-December 2016, 6(4):187-193
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196900  PMID:28217290
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is an important medical concern for adolescent athletes that can lead to long-term disabilities. Multiple mild injuries may exacerbate tissue damage resulting in cumulative brain injury and poor functional recovery. In the present study, we investigated the increased brain vulnerability to rmTBI and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment using a juvenile rat model of rmTBI. Two episodes of mild cortical controlled impact (3 days apart) were induced in juvenile rats. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was applied 1 hour/day × 3 days at 2 atmosphere absolute consecutively, starting at 1 day after initial mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Neuropathology was assessed by multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tissue immunohistochemistry. After repetitive mTBI, there were increases in T2-weighted imaging-defined cortical lesions and susceptibility weighted imaging-defined cortical microhemorrhages, correlated with brain tissue gliosis at the site of impact. HBO treatment significantly decreased the MRI-identified abnormalities and tissue histopathology. Our findings suggest that HBO treatment improves the cumulative tissue damage in juvenile brain following rmTBI. Such therapy regimens could be considered in adolescent athletes at the risk of repeated concussions exposures.
  1,281 538 4
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on the comprehensive mRNA expression profile of the mouse hippocampus
Tomo Hayase, Shunsuke Tachibana, Michiaki Yamakage
April-June 2016, 6(2):70-76
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.184715  PMID:27867470
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after general anesthesia. Recent studies suggested that the hippocampus is involved in PONV. Hypothesising that hippocampal dopaminergic neurons are related to PONV, we examined the comprehensive mRNA profile of the hippocampus, using a sevoflurane-treated mouse model to confirm this. This study was conducted after approval from our institutional animal ethics committee, the Animal Research Center of Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine (project number: 12-033). Eight mice were assigned to two groups: a naοve group and a sevoflurane group (Sev group). In the Sev group, four mice were anesthetised with 3.5% sevoflurane for 1 hour. Subsequently, mRNA was isolated from their hippocampal cells and RNA sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Mapping of the quality-controlled, filtered paired-end reads to mouse genomes and quantification of the expression levels of each gene were performed using R software. The Rtn4rl2 gene that encodes the Nogo receptor was the most up-regulated gene in the present study. The expression levels of dopamine receptor genes and the tachykinin gene were increased by sevoflurane exposure, while the genes related to serotonin receptors were not altered by sevoflurane exposure. The expression levels of LIM-homeodomain-related genes were highly down-regulated by sevoflurane. These findings suggest that sevoflurane exposure induces dopaminergic stimulation of hippocampal neurons and triggers PONV, while neuronal inflammation caused by LIM-homeodomain-related genes is down-regulated by sevoflurane.
  1,527 206 3
EDITORIAL
New Beginnings for Medical Gas Research
Brandon J Dixon, John H Zhang
January-March 2016, 6(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179336  PMID:27826416
  1,496 232 -
MEETING UPDATE
Meeting report: Second Hydrogen Molecule Biomedical Symposium in Beijing, China
Ou-yang Chen, Zhou-heng Ye, Chong Li
January-March 2016, 6(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179348  PMID:27826424
  1,470 201 -
REVIEWS
Cocktail treatment, a promising strategy to treat acute cerebral ischemic stroke?
Li-jun Liang, Jin-ming Yang, Xin-chun Jin
January-March 2016, 6(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.179343  PMID:27826421
Up to now, over 1,000 experimental treatments found in cells and rodents have been difficult to translate to human ischemic stroke. Since ischemia and reperfusion, two separate stages of ischemic stroke, have different pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain injury, a combination of protective agents targeting ischemia and reperfusion respectively may obtain substantially better results than a single agent. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) has been shown to exhibit neuro- and vaso-protective effects by improving tissue oxygenation when it is given during ischemia, however the effect of NBO would diminish when the duration of ischemia and reperfusion was extended. Therefore, during reperfusion drug treatment targeting inflammation, oxidative stress and free radical scavenger would be a useful adjuvant to extend the therapeutic window of tissue plasminogen activator, the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke. In this review, we discussed the neuro- and vaso-protective effects of NBO and recent finding of combining NBO with other drugs.
  1,404 243 4
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy of spinal cord injury
Nitesh P Patel, Jason H Huang
April-June 2017, 7(2):133-143
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.208520  PMID:28744367
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex disease process that involves both primary and secondary mechanisms of injury and can leave patients with devastating functional impairment as well as psychological debilitation. While no curative treatment is available for spinal cord injury, current therapeutic approaches focus on reducing the secondary injury that follows SCI. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has shown promising neuroprotective effects in several experimental studies, but the limited number of clinical reports have shown mixed findings. This review will provide an overview of the potential mechanisms by which HBO therapy may exert neuroprotection, provide a summary of the clinical application of HBO therapy in patients with SCI, and discuss avenues for future studies.
  1,364 234 1
REVIEW
Brain globins in physiology and pathology
Luo-kun Xie, Shao-hua Yang
July-September 2016, 6(3):154-163
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.191361  PMID:27867483
Globins are globular proteins for either transport or storage of oxygen which are critical for cellular metabolism. Four globins have been identified in rodent and human brains. Among them, neuroglobin, cytoglobin and hemoglobin chains are constitutively expressed in normal brain, while myoglobin is only expressed in some neurological disorders. Studies on the molecular structure, expression and functional features of these brain globins indicated that they may play crucial roles in maintenance of neural cell survival and activity, including neurons and astrocytes. Their regulation in neurological disorders may help thoroughly understand initiation and progression of ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and glioma, etc. Elucidation of the brain globin functions might remarkably improve medical strategies that sustain neurological homeostasis and treat neurological diseases. Here the expression pattern and functions of brain globins and their involvement in neurological disorders are reviewed.
  1,306 268 6
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Hydrogen-rich water for improvements of mood, anxiety, and autonomic nerve function in daily life
Kei Mizuno, Akihiro T Sasaki, Kyoko Ebisu, Kanako Tajima, Osami Kajimoto, Junzo Nojima, Hirohiko Kuratsune, Hiroshi Hori, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
October-December 2017, 7(4):247-255
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.222448  PMID:29497485
Health and a vibrant life are sought by everyone. To improve quality of life (QOL), maintain a healthy state, and prevent various diseases, evaluations of the effects of potentially QOL-increasing factors are important. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation cause deteriorations in central nervous system function, leading to low QOL. In healthy individuals, aging, job stress, and cognitive load over several hours also induce increases in oxidative stress, suggesting that preventing the accumulation of oxidative stress caused by daily stress and daily work contributes to maintaining QOL and ameliorating the effects of aging. Hydrogen has anti-oxidant activity and can prevent inflammation, and may thus contribute to improve QOL. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the QOL of adult volunteers using psychophysiological tests, including questionnaires and tests of autonomic nerve function and cognitive function. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with a two-way crossover design, 26 volunteers (13 females, 13 males; mean age, 34.4 ± 9.9 years) were randomized to either a group administered oral HRW (600 mL/d) or placebo water (PLW, 600 mL/d) for 4 weeks. Change ratios (post-treatment/pre-treatment) for K6 score and sympathetic nerve activity during the resting state were significantly lower after HRW administration than after PLW administration. These results suggest that HRW may reinforce QOL through effects that increase central nervous system functions involving mood, anxiety, and autonomic nerve function.
  1,264 234 1
REVIEWS
The role of hydrogen sulfide in stroke
Yang Dou, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
April-June 2016, 6(2):79-84
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.184717  PMID:27867473
Stroke is a kind of acute cerebrovascular disease characterized by the focal lack of neurological function, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. As society ages rapidly, stroke has become the second leading cause of disability and death, and also become the main threat to human health and life. In recent years, findings from increasing animal and clinical trials have supplied scientific evidences for the treatment of stroke. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which has always been seen as a toxic gas, now has been thought to be the third gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Accumulating evidences indicate that H 2 S plays an important role in stroke. Given that its neuroprotective effect is dose-dependent, only when its concentration is relatively low, H 2 S can yield the neuroprotection, while high dose may lead to neurotoxicity. All these study results suggest that H 2 S may offer a new promising application for the therapy of stroke. Here, our review will present the role of H 2 S in stroke from its mechanism to animal and clinical studies.
  1,247 233 4
REVIEW
Paradigms and mechanisms of inhalational anesthetics mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke
Hailian Wang, Peiying Li, Na Xu, Ling Zhu, Mengfei Cai, Weifeng Yu, Yanqin Gao
October-December 2016, 6(4):194-205
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196901  PMID:28217291
Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability and cognitive dysfunction. The high mortality and disability of cerebral ischemic stroke is urging the health providers, including anesthesiologists and other perioperative professioners, to seek effective protective strategies, which are extremely limited, especially for those perioperative patients. Intriguingly, several commonly used inhalational anesthetics are recently suggested to possess neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. This review introduces multiple paradigms of inhalational anesthetic treatments that have been investigated in the setting of cerebral ischemia, such as preconditioning, proconditioning and postconditioning with a variety of inhalational anesthetics. The pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these inhalational anesthetics-afforded neuroprotection against stroke are also discussed in detail, including the common pathways shared by most of the inhalational anesthetic paradigms, such as anti-excitotoxicity, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. There are also distinct mechanisms involved in specific paradigms, such as preserving blood brain barrier integrity, regulating cerebral blood flow and catecholamine release. The ready availability of these inhalational anesthetics bedside and renders them a potentially translatable stroke therapy attracting great efforts for understanding of the underlying mechanisms.
  1,208 255 4
Application of hyperbaric oxygen in liver transplantation
Hu Lv, Cui-hong Han, Xue-jun Sun, Wen-wu Liu
October-December 2016, 6(4):212-218
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.196903  PMID:28217293
In recent years, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used in the treatment of a lot of diseases such as decompression sickness, arterial gas embolism, carbon dioxide poisoning, soft tissue infection, refractory osteomyelitis, and problematic wound, but little is known about its application in liver transplantation. Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the protective effects of HBO on liver transplantation and liver preservation, there are still some controversies on this issue, especially its immunomodulatory effect. In this short review, we briefly summarize the findings supporting the application of HBO during liver transplantation (including donors and recipients).
  1,273 178 2