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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2017
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 226-278

Online since Monday, January 22, 2018

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Exposure to 60% oxygen promotes migration and upregulates angiogenesis factor secretion in breast cancer cells p. 226
Peter D Crowley, Vivian Stuttgen, Emma O'Carroll, Simon A Ash, Donal J Buggy, Helen C Gallagher
Peri-operative factors, including anaesthetic drugs and techniques, may affect cancer cell biology and clinical recurrence. In breast cancer cells, we demonstrated that sevoflurane promotes migration and angiogenesis in high fractional oxygen but not in air. Follow-up analysis of the peri-operative oxygen fraction trial found an association between high inspired oxygen during cancer surgery and reduced tumor-free survival. Here we evaluated effects of acute, high oxygen exposure on breast cancer cell viability, migration and secretion of angiogenesis factors in vitro. MDA-MB-231and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to 21%, 30%, 60%, or 80% v/v O2 for 3 hours. Cell viability at 24 hours was determined by MTT and migration at 24 hours with the Oris™ Cell Migration Assay. Secretion of angiogenesis factors at 24 hours was measured via membrane-based immunoarray. Exposure to 30%, 60% or 80% oxygen did not affect cell viability. Migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was increased by 60% oxygen (P = 0.012 and P = 0.007, respectively) while 30% oxygen increased migration in MCF-7 cells (P = 0.011). These effects were reversed by dimethyloxaloylglycine. In MDA-MB-231 cells high fractional oxygen increased secretion of angiogenesis factors monocyte chemotactic protein 1, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and vascular endothelial growth factor. In MCF-7 cells, interleukin-8, angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion was significantly increased by high fractional oxygen. High oxygen exposure stimulates migration and secretion of angiogenesis factors in breast cancer cells in vitro.
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Polarization of macrophages in the blood after decompression in mice p. 236
Cui-hong Han, Pei-xi Zhang, Wei-gang Xu, Run-ping Li, Jia-jun Xu, Wen-wu Liu
The veins are a major site of bubble formation after decompression and the lung is a target organ of bubbles. Bubble-induced inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS). Macrophages play a central role in the inflammation, and macrophage polarization is closely related to the pathogenesis of some lung diseases. This study aimed to investigate the blood macrophage polarization in mice after decompression. BALB/c mice were exposed to hyperbaric air for 60 minutes, and rapid decompression was performed to induce DCS. Slow decompression and hyperoxia (150 kPa, 60 minutes) served as control groups, and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO; 250 kPa, 60 minutes) was employed for DCS treatment. Macrophage phenotype was determined by flow cytometry, and cytokines related to macrophage polarization were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed rapid decompression significantly induced the shift to M1 phenotype, which was not observed in slow decompression group, HBO and hyperoxia groups. These changes were consistent with the change in blood tumor necrosis factor α level. Moreover, any treatment could significantly increase the M2 macrophages, but blood interleukin-10 remained unchanged after different treatments. In addition, the blood and lung levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 increased significantly after rapid decompression, but reduced markedly after HBO treatment. Taken together, rapid decompression is able to induce the shift to M1 phenotype in blood macrophages, which may then migrate into the lung involving decompression-induced lung injury.
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Comparing the efficacy and safety of laryngeal mask airway, streamlined liner of the pharyngeal airway and I-gel following tracheal extubation p. 241
Hesameddin Modir, Esmail Moshiri, Bijan Yazdi, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Amirreza Modir
Adverse events following surgical operations are common complications due to removal of tracheal tube in contrast to the tracheal intubation. Awareness about the new methods and strategies for tracheal tube extubation is necessary for a safe and successful extubation. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of laryngeal mask airway (LMA), streamlined liner of the pharyngeal airway (SLIPA) and I-gel in extubation time of tracheal tube. A one-single randomized clinical trial was conducted in 105 eligible patients in three groups including LMA, SLIPA and I-gel. The patients were under surgery after general anesthesia with propofol (2–3 mg/kg) and fentanyl (1–2 μg/kg). Hemodynamic responses and extubation consequences including coughing rate, laryngospasm, airway obstruction, apnea, breath holding and straining of patients, vomiting, and need for re-intubation were recorded every 5 minutes since inserting of supraglottic airway devices (SADs) until patients restore consciousness. Analysis of data was conducted in SPSS software by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA for repeated measurements tests. The overall successful insertion was 100% for LMA and I-Gel and this rate was 97.1% for SLIPA method. A significant decrease was observed in trend of hemodynamic responses in all three groups. Nevertheless, the MBP was lower in LMA group and lower HR was observed in I-Gel and higher HR occurred in SLIPA (P < 0.05). Three groups was same statistically regarding sore throat, vomiting, coughing, breath holding, apnea, laryngospasm, and re-intubation need (P > 0.05). However, the incidence rate of apnea, and laryngospasm, as well as re-intubation need in SLIPA group was 2.9%, respectively. LMA, I-GEL and SLIPA could be considered as useful and safe devices for ventilation control after tracheal tube removal at the end of operation. Three devices were same regarding to sore throat, vomiting, coughing, and breath holding. However, LMA showed lower side effects while SLIPA was related to more occurrences of apnea, laryngospasm, and re-intubation need.
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Hydrogen-rich water for improvements of mood, anxiety, and autonomic nerve function in daily life p. 247
Kei Mizuno, Akihiro T Sasaki, Kyoko Ebisu, Kanako Tajima, Osami Kajimoto, Junzo Nojima, Hirohiko Kuratsune, Hiroshi Hori, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Health and a vibrant life are sought by everyone. To improve quality of life (QOL), maintain a healthy state, and prevent various diseases, evaluations of the effects of potentially QOL-increasing factors are important. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation cause deteriorations in central nervous system function, leading to low QOL. In healthy individuals, aging, job stress, and cognitive load over several hours also induce increases in oxidative stress, suggesting that preventing the accumulation of oxidative stress caused by daily stress and daily work contributes to maintaining QOL and ameliorating the effects of aging. Hydrogen has anti-oxidant activity and can prevent inflammation, and may thus contribute to improve QOL. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the QOL of adult volunteers using psychophysiological tests, including questionnaires and tests of autonomic nerve function and cognitive function. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with a two-way crossover design, 26 volunteers (13 females, 13 males; mean age, 34.4 ± 9.9 years) were randomized to either a group administered oral HRW (600 mL/d) or placebo water (PLW, 600 mL/d) for 4 weeks. Change ratios (post-treatment/pre-treatment) for K6 score and sympathetic nerve activity during the resting state were significantly lower after HRW administration than after PLW administration. These results suggest that HRW may reinforce QOL through effects that increase central nervous system functions involving mood, anxiety, and autonomic nerve function.
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A physiologically based model for denitrogenation kinetics p. 256
Ira Katz, Jacqueline Murdock, Marc Palgen, Géraldine Farjot
Under normal conditions we continuously breathe 78% nitrogen (N2) such that the body tissues and fluids are saturated with dissolved N2. For normobaric medical gas administration at high concentrations, the N2 concentration must be less than that in the ambient atmosphere; therefore, nitrogen will begin to be released by the body tissues. There is a need to estimate the time needed for denitrogenation in the planning of surgical procedures. In this paper we will describe the application of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to denitrogenation kinetics. The results are compared to the data resulting from experiments in the literature that measured the end tidal N2 concentration while breathing 100% oxygen in the form of moderately rapid and slow compartment time constants. It is shown that the model is in general agreement with published experimental data. Correlations for denitrogenation as a function of subject weight are provided.
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The influence of ZnO-SnO2 nanoparticles and activated carbon on the photocatalytic degradation of toluene using continuous flow mode p. 260
Hossein Ali Rangkooy, Fatemeh Tanha, Neamat Jaafarzadeh, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi
The present study examined the gas-phase photocatalytic degradation of toluene using ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposite supported on activated carbon in a photocatalytic reactor. Toluene was selected as a model pollutant from volatile organic compounds to determine the pathway of photocatalytic degradation and the factors influencing this degradation. The ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposite was synthesized through co-precipitation method in a ratio of 2:1 and then supported on activated carbon. The immobilization of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposite on activated carbon was determined by the surface area and scanning electron micrograph technique proposed by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller. The laboratory findings showed that the highest efficiency was 40% for photocatalytic degradation of toluene. The results also indicated that ZnO-SnO2 nano-oxides immobilization on activated carbon had a synergic effect on photocatalytic degradation of toluene. Use of a hybrid photocatalytic system (ZnO/SnO2 nano coupled oxide) and application of absorbent (activated carbon) may be efficient and effective technique for refinement of toluene from air flow.
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The transfer of hydrogen from inert gas to therapeutic gas p. 265
Hong-mei Li, Li Shen, Jun-wen Ge, Ru-fang Zhang
Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and has been used as an inert gas for a long time. More recent studies have shown that molecular hydrogen as a kind of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, gene expression and signal modulation molecule, can be used for the treatment of many diseases. This review mainly focuses on the research progresses of hydrogen in various medical fields and the possible action mechanisms.
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The role of nitrous oxide in stroke p. 273
Zhu-wei Zhang, Dong-ping Zhang, Hai-ying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke that is caused by poor blood flow into the brain results in cell death, including ischemia stroke due to lack of blood into brain tissue, and hemorrhage due to bleeding. Both of them will give rise to the dysfunction of brain. In general, the signs and symptoms of stroke are the inability of feeling or moving on one side of body, sometimes loss of vision to one side. Above symptoms will appear soon after the stroke has happened. If the symptoms and signs happen in 1 or 2 hours, we often call them as transient ischemic attack. Moreover, hemorrhagic stroke often leads to severe headache. It is known that neuronal death can happen after stroke, and it depends upon the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitatory glutamate receptor which is the goal for a lot of neuroprotective agents. Nitrous oxide was discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1772, and then he and his friends, including the poet Coleridge and Robert Sauce, experimented with the gas. They found this gas could make patients loss the sense of pain and still maintain consciousness after inhalation. Shortly the gas was used as an anesthetic, especially in the field of dentists. Now, accroding to theme of Helene N. David and other scientists, both of nitrous oxide at 75 vol% and xenon at 50 vol% could reduce ischemic neuronal death in the cortex by 70% and decrease NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx by 30%. Therefore, more clinical and experimental studies are important to illuminate the mechanisms of how nitrous oxide protects brain tissue and to explore the best protocol of this gas in stroke treatment.
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Renal responses to sevoflurane and isoflurane in patients undergoing donor nephrectomy p. 277
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
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Ozone therapy in dentistry: revisited p. 278
Thorakkal Shamim
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