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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2017
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 150-225

Online since Tuesday, October 17, 2017

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RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Endotracheal intubation in patients with difficult airway: Using laryngeal mask airway with bougie versus video laryngoscopy p. 150
Hesameddin Modir, Esmail Moshiri, Bita Malekianzadeh, Gholamreza Noori, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215744  
Airway management is essential for safe anesthesia and endotracheal intubation is the most important procedure by which critically ill patients can be better managed, especially if done quickly and successfully. This study aimed to compare the techniques of intubation through laryngeal mask airway (LMA) using a bougie versus video laryngoscopy (VL) regarding to intubation success and the quality of intubation indices in patients with difficult airways. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 96 patients aged 16–76 years with Mallampati class 3 or 4 who underwent elective surgery. Once the demographics were recorded, patients were randomly divided into two groups and the first group intubated with VL, and the second group intubated through laryngeal mask using a bougie. Then vital signs, arterial oxygen saturation, the time required for successful intubation, and ease of intubation were recorded. Here t-tests, chi-square, Fisher exact tests, and analysis of variance for repeated measurement were used to analyze the data in SPSS software. The overall success rates of intubation in VL and LMA groups were 46 (96%) and 44 (92%), respectively. The mean duration of intubation for the LMA and VL groups was 18.70 ± 6.73 and 14.21 ± 4.14 seconds, respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, visual analogue scale score for pain in throat was significantly lower in VL group than LMA (1.65 ± 0.76 vs. 1.33 ± 0.52). Moreover, easy intubation in bougie group was 50%, while the easy intubation in VL was 73% (P = 0.023). In addition, incidence of cough was 31% in the LMA with bougie group and 9% in VL group (P = 0.005). The VL technique is an easier method and has a shorter intubation time than LMA using bougie, and causes a lower incidence of coughing, laryngospasm in patients that need intubation. Moreover, cough and discomfort in the throat tend to be less in VL, and the LMA could be used as replacement of VL in hard situations.
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CORRECTION Top

Correction: Argon attenuates the emergence of secondary injury after traumatic brain injury within a 2-hour incubation period compared to desflurane: an in vitro study p. 155

DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215756  
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Case control study: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of mild traumatic brain injury persistent post-concussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder Highly accessed article p. 156
Paul G Harch, Susan R Andrews, Edward F Fogarty, Juliette Lucarini, Keith W Van Meter
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215745  
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are epidemic in United States Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Treatment of the combined diagnoses is limited. The aim of this study is to assess safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) for mild TBI PPCS and PTSD. Thirty military subjects aged 18–65 with PPCS with or without PTSD and from one or more blast-induced mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries that were a minimum of 1 year old and occurred after 9/11/2001 were studied. The measures included symptom lists, physical exam, neuropsychological and psychological testing on 29 subjects (1 dropout) and SPECT brain imaging pre and post HBOT. Comparison was made using SPECT imaging on 29 matched Controls. Side effects (30 subjects) experienced due to the HBOT: reversible middle ear barotrauma (n = 6), transient deterioration in symptoms (n = 7), reversible bronchospasm (n = 1), and increased anxiety (n = 2; not related to confinement); unrelated to HBOT: ureterolithiasis (n = 1), chest pain (n = 2). Significant improvement (29 subjects) was seen in neurological exam, symptoms, intelligence quotient, memory, measures of attention, dominant hand motor speed and dexterity, quality of life, general anxiety, PTSD, depression (including reduction in suicidal ideation), and reduced psychoactive medication usage. At 6-month follow-up subjects reported further symptomatic improvement. Compared to Controls the subjects' SPECT was significantly abnormal, significantly improved after 1 and 40 treatments, and became statistically indistinguishable from Controls in 75% of abnormal areas. HBOT was found to be safe and significantly effective for veterans with mild to moderate TBI PPCS with PTSD in all four outcome domains: clinical medicine, neuropsychology, psychology, and SPECT imaging. Veterans also experienced a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and reduction in psychoactive medication use.
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A method for calculating the gas volume proportions and inhalation temperature of inert gas mixtures allowing reaching normothermic or hypothermic target body temperature in the awake rat p. 175
Jacques H Abraini, Hélène N David, Jean-Éric Blatteau, Jean Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215746  
The noble gases xenon (Xe) and helium (He) are known to possess neuroprotective properties. Xe is considered the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen (O2) in air, conditions that could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective properties of Xe by increasing the critical care patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, He has a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is unfortunately far less potent than Xe at providing neuroprotection. Therefore, combining Xe with He could allow obtaining, depending on the gas inhalation temperature and composition, gas mixtures with neutral or hypothermic properties, the latter being advantageous in term of neuroprotection. However, calculating the thermal properties of a mixture, whatever the substances – gases, metals, rubbers, etc. – is not trivial. To answer this question, we provide a graphical method to assess the volume proportions of Xe, He and O2 that a gas mixture should contain, and the inhalation temperature to which it should be administered to allow a clinician to maintain the patient at a target body temperature.
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Xenon-helium gas mixture at equimolar concentration of 37.5% protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury and inhibits tissue plasminogen activator p. 181
Hélène N David, Benoit Haelewyn, Jean-Éric Blatteau, Jean-Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée, Jacques H Abraini
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215747  
Xenon (Xe) is considered to be the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen in air. These physical characteristics could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective action of Xe by increasing the patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, helium (He) is a cost-efficient gas with a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is far less potent than Xe. In this study, we hypothesized that mixing Xe and He could allow obtaining a neuroprotective gas mixture with advantageously reduced molecular weight and increased thermal conductivity. We found that Xe and He at the equimolar concentration of 37.5% reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase in brain slices, an ex vivo model of acute ischemic stroke. These results together with the effects of Xe-He on the thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator are discussed.
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Sevoflurane and renal function: a meta-analysis of randomized trials p. 186
Lady Christine L Ong Sio, Richard Glenn C dela Cruz, Alexander F Bautista
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215748  
Objective: This study aims to describe the overall cumulative effect of sevoflurane on kidney function in healthy patients in terms of mean plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance, urinary protein, and glucose excretion at 24 and 72 hours post-anesthesia. Data retrieval: A systematic literature search using MEDLINE and EMBASE as primary search engines was conducted. Articles, relevant abstracts, and citations dated January 1, 1995 to June 30, 2016 were retrieved. Data selection: Search terms included the pharmacological generic name sevoflurane. Search was expanded using the terms “renal function” OR “kidney” function AND “creatinine” OR “blood urea nitrogen” OR “creatinine clearance” OR “proteinuria” OR “glucosuria” OR “nephrotoxicity.” Limitations included randomized controlled trial, humans, and ages 19 and above, to include English and non-English text formats. All bibliographic indices for the relevant journals identified were also searched and collated according to relevance. Main outcome measures: Changes in serum/plasma creatinine, BUN, urinary protein, and glucose excretion of sevoflurane at 24 and 72-hours were determined. Results: Six relevant studies were qualified by both the inclusion criteria and inclusion dates. This review consists of 873 patients, 65% are males and 35% are females, with mean age of 56 ± 3 years. Sevoflurane was compared to isoflurane with regard to its nephrotoxic potential. Analyses on the effects of sevoflurane were performed on serum/plasma creatinine, BUN, urinary protein, and glucose excretion at 24 and 72 hours which showed no statistical difference between sevoflurane and isoflurane. Conclusion: In an apparently healthy adult without coexisting renal disorder, sevoflurane does not produce elevations in creatinine and BUN above the established upper limit of the reference range.
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REVIEWS Top

The role of nitric oxide in stroke p. 194
Zhou-qing Chen, Ru-tao Mou, Dong-xia Feng, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215750  
Stroke is considered to be an acute cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. The high incidence and poor prognosis of stroke suggest that it is a highly disabling and highly lethal disease which can pose a serious threat to human health. Nitric oxide (NO), a common gas in nature, which is often thought as a toxic gas, because of its intimate relationship with the pathological processes of many diseases, especially in the regulation of blood flow and cell inflammation. However, recent years have witnessed an increased interest that NO plays a significant and positive role in stroke as an essential gas signal molecule. In view of the fact that the neuroprotective effect of NO is closely related to its concentration, cell type and time, only in the appropriate circumstances can NO play a protective effect. The purpose of this review is to summarize the roles of NO in ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
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Anesthetic effects on autophagy p. 204
Fan Ye, Zhi-yi Zuo
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215751  
Anesthetic agents provide patient comfort and optimize conditions for surgical and procedural interventions. These agents have been shown to modulate autophagy, which is a cellular mechanism that maintains tissue homeostasis by degrading and recycling excess, aged, or dysfunctional proteins. However, it is not always clear if upregulated autophagy is beneficial or harmful. This review assesses the anesthetic effects on autophagy. In the vast majority of studies, anesthetic modulation of autophagy is beneficial for cell survival.
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Ozone therapy: An overview of pharmacodynamics, current research, and clinical utility p. 212
Noel L Smith, Anthony L Wilson, Jason Gandhi, Sohrab Vatsia, Sardar Ali Khan
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215752  
The use of ozone (O3) gas as a therapy in alternative medicine has attracted skepticism due to its unstable molecular structure. However, copious volumes of research have provided evidence that O3's dynamic resonance structures facilitate physiological interactions useful in treating a myriad of pathologies. Specifically, O3 therapy induces moderate oxidative stress when interacting with lipids. This interaction increases endogenous production of antioxidants, local perfusion, and oxygen delivery, as well as enhances immune responses. We have conducted a comprehensive review of O3 therapy, investigating its contraindications, routes and concentrations of administration, mechanisms of action, disinfectant properties in various microorganisms, and its medicinal use in different pathologies. We explore the therapeutic value of O3 in pathologies of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, central nervous system, head and neck, musculoskeletal, subcutaneous tissue, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite compelling evidence, further studies are essential to mark it as a viable and quintessential treatment option in medicine.
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Macrophage polarization is related to the pathogenesis of decompression induced lung injury p. 220
Cui-hong Han, Pei-xi Zhang, Wen-wu Liu
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215753  
Studies have shown that blood bubbles may be detectable and there is ultrasonic evidence of acute interstitial lung edema even after diving without protocol violation. Macrophages play a central role in the inflammation, and macrophage polarization is closely related to the pathogenesis some lung diseases. Available findings indicate that decompression may induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in the blood and tissues, which are associated with the macrophage polarization, and hyperbaric treatment may exert therapeutic effects on decompression related diseases via regulating these factors. Thus, we hypothesize that the polarization of circulating and/or resident macrophages is involved in the pathogenesis of decompression induced lung injury.
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COMMENTARY Top

Anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity: causes, prospective studies and possible interventions p. 224
Abhijit S Nair, Kaushik Pulipaka, Basanth Kumar Rayani
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.215754  
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