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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 110-114

Addition of dexmedetomidine, tramadol and neostigmine to lidocaine 1.5% increasing the duration of postoperative analgesia in the lower abdominal pain surgery among children: A double-blinded randomized clinical study


1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Alireza Kamali
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2045-9912.266984

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Pain is a common complication after surgery. Insufficient control of postoperative pain has adverse effects on the physiological, metabolic and psychological state of the child. The use of local analgesics and anesthetics alone cannot produce complete anesthesia and intraoperative comfort. The addition of adjuvant drugs is commonly used to improve the quality of the block. Therefore, adding new supplements may increase the duration of analgesia. The aim of this study was to compare the addition of dexmedetomidine, tramadol and neostigmine to lidocaine 1.5% in increasing the duration of postoperative analgesia in the lower abdominal pain surgery in children aged 2–8 years. This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on children candidate for lower abdominal surgery. The 96 patients were randomly divided into 3 groups including dexmedetomidine, neostigmine, and tramadol. For all children, 3 mg of midazolam was administered orally before entering the operating room. The patients underwent general anesthesia with 2 μg/kg fentanyl, 0.03 mg/kg midazolam, 0.5 mg/kg atracurium and 5–6 mg/kg thiopental. After determining the hiatus membrane, 2 mL syringes containing air and distilled water (each of which 1 mL) slowly entered the space. After eliminating caudal resistance, 1.5% lidocaine was injected at dose of 0.5 mL/kg. A total of 96 patients were enrolled in this study. The results revealed that pain scores in the dexmedetomidine group in recovery, 2, 6 and 12 hours after surgery were less than the other two groups. Furthermore, the tramadol group showed a lower score in comparison with the neostigmine group and the duration of analgesia in the dexmedetomidine group was more than the other two groups. In addition, the mean of analgesic at 24 hours after operation in the dexmedetomidine group was lower as compared to the other two groups, indicating the effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant in increasing the duration of analgesia and reducing postoperative pain in patients along with lidocaine 1.5%. All three drugs (neostigmine, tramadol and dexmedetomidine drugs), along with other local anesthetic, increased the duration of analgesia and decreased postoperative pain in children. The effect of dexmedetomidine was greater than the other two drugs. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran (approved No. IR.ARAKMU.REC.1396.112) on October 28, 2017, and registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (registration No. IRCT20141209020258N83) on August 29, 2018.


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